Kennedy, B. (2017, August 16). Four Psychology Principles Every UX Designer Should Know [blog post for What Users Do].

Scerbo, M.W., Britt, R.C., Montano, M., Kennedy, R.A., Prytz, E., & Stefanidis, D. (2017). Effects of a retention interval and refresher session on intracorporeal suturing and knot tying skill and mental workload. Surgery, 161, 1209-1214.

Scerbo, M., Warvel, L., Zybak, S., Kennedy, R., Ashdown, A., Perry, K., Newlin-Canzone, E., Papelis, Y., Croll, M., & Garcia, H. (2017). Analysis of effective speech recognition in a virtual operating room. Proceedings of the 2017 MODSIM World Conference.


Kron, F.W., Fetters, M.D., Scerbo, M.W., White, C.B.,  Lypson, M.L., Padilla, M.A., Gliva-McConvey, G.A., Belfore, L.A., West, T., Wallace, A.M., Guetterman, T.C., Schleicher, L.S., Kennedy, R.A., Mangrulkar, R.S., Cleary, J.F., Marsella, S.C. & Becker, D.M. (2016). Using a computer simulation for teaching communication skills: a blinded multisite mixed methods randomized controlled trialPatient Education and Counseling.

Kennedy, R.A., Scerbo, M.W., Anderson-Montoya, B.L., Belfore II, L.A., Abuhamad, A.Z., & Davis, S.S. (2016). The influence of a crosshair visual aid on observer detection of simulated fetal heart rate signalsAmerican Journal of Perinatology Reports, 6, e115-120.

Kennedy, R.A., Nemani, A., Monden, K.R., Sankaranarayanan, G., & De, S. (April, 2016). The effects of task difficulty and time pressure in a simulated laparoscopic taskAssociation for Surgical Education.

Scerbo, M.W., Britt, R.C., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Prytz, E., & Stefanidis, D. (March, 2016). The effects of a retention interval and refresher session on intracorporeal suturing skill and mental workload. 9th Annual ACS AEI Consortium Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Scerbo, M., Britt, R., Kennedy, R., Prytz, E., & Stefanidis, D. (January, 2016). Laparoscopic skill and mental workload measured over retention interval. 16th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, San Diego, CA.


Becker, D., Scerbo, M., White, C., Lypson, M., Kennedy, R., Padilla, M., Gliva, G., Cleary, J., Mangrulkar, R., & Fetters, M. (October, 2015). A multisite randomized comparison of interactive virtual human simulation (MPathic-VR) and standard multimedia for teaching advanced communication skills among second-year medical students. Poster presented at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, New Orleans, LA.

Rosi-Schumacher, M., Kennedy, R., & De, S. (April, 2015). Effect of music tempo on physiological stress and subjective mental workload for a virtual reality surgical task. Poster presented at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Undergraduate Research Symposium, Troy, NY.

Britt, R.C., Scerbo, M.W., Montano, M., Kennedy, R.A., Prytz, E., &  Stefanidis, D. (2015). Intracorporeal suturing: Transfer from FLS to cadavers results in substantial increase in mental workloadSurgery, 158, 1428-1433.

Dargar, S., Kennedy, R., Lai, W., Arikatla, V., & De, S. (2015). Towards immersive virtual reality (iVR): A route to surgical expertise. Journal of Computational Surgery, 2. doi: 10.1186/s40244-015-0015-8

Scerbo, M.W., Britt, R., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., & Stefanidis, D. (January, 2015). Transitioning from FLS penrose drains to human cadaver tissue: Psychophysical differences in stiffness and elasticity. Simulation in Healthcare, 6.


Strater, L., Kennedy, R.A., Scerbo, M.W., Papelis, Y., Croll, M., Garcia, H., Griffith, T., Flynn, J.R., Proaps, A.B., Shah, S.J., Procci, K., & Bowers, C. (2014). Me and My VE, Part 3: An Immersive Virtual Operating Room for Training Team Skills in SurgeryProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting, 2397-2401.

Proaps, A. & Kennedy, B. (2014, September 5). Human Factors: The intersection of technology and psychology [Blog post for Psychology Today]. Retrieved from

Proaps, A. & Kennedy, R.A. (2014). Enhancing outreach goals through multi-disciplinary collaboration. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 22, 23-25.

Papelis, Y., Garcia, H., Croll, M., Scerbo, M., & Kennedy, R. (April, 2014). Behavior authoring and run-time management of computer agents for a virtual operating room training environmentMODSIM World Conference & Expo, Hampton, VA.

Britt, R., Scerbo, M., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Prytz, E., & Stefanidis, D. (March, 2014). Intracorporeal suturing: Transfer from FLS to cadavers results in substantial increases in mental workload. American College of Surgeons’ 7th Annual Meeting of the Consortium of ACS-Accredited Education Institutes, Chicago, IL.

Proaps, A. & Kennedy, B. (2014). National Ergonomics Month and World Usability Day: Human Factors outreach through multidisciplinary collaboration. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin, 57, 2-4.

Montano, M., Scerbo, M., Kennedy, R., Stefanidis, D., Britt, R., & Davis, S. (2014). Measuring changes in skill acquisition and mental workload on two laparoscopic tasks. 14th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, San Francisco, CA.


Scerbo, M.W., Kennedy, R.A., Montano, M., Britt, R.C., Davis, S.S., & Stefanidis, D. (October, 2013). A spatial secondary task for measuring laparoscopic mental workload: Differences in surgical experience. Presented at the 57th International Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, CA.

Anderson-Montoya, B.L., Scerbo, M.W., Kennedy, R.A., Belfore II, L.A., Abuhamad, A., Davis, S.S., & Chauhan, S.P. (October, 2013). Observer’s performance and perceptual sensitivity for detecting critical patterns in static maternal-fetal heart rate images. Presented at the 57th International Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Diego, CA.

Scerbo, M.W., Prytz, E., Kennedy, R.A., Byars, D., Goodmurphy, C., Knapp, B.J., Miller, G., Lattanzio, F., Shaves, S., Solhaug, M., Levitov, A., Abuhamad, A., & Toreno, F. (October, 2013). Spatial abilities and ultrasonography: Do differences between male and female medical students matter?  Second World Congress for Ultrasound in Medical Education, Columbia, SC.

Prytz, E., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Anderson-Montoya, B., Scerbo, M., Parodi, A. & Armstrong, B. (March, 2013). A model for evaluating healthcare simulation systems.Presented at the 2013 International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care: Advancing the Cause, Baltimore, MD.

Prytz, E., Montano, M., Kennedy, R., Scerbo, M., Britt, R., Davis, S., & Stefanidis, D. (January, 2013). Using a spatial task to measure laparoscopic mental workload: Initial results. Simulation in Healthcare, 7, 511. (Best Research Abstract, 2nd place)


Kennedy, B. & Proaps, A. (2012). Old Dominion University hosts 2012 student conference. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Bulletin, 55, 8-9.

Prytz, E., Anderson-Montoya, B., Kennedy, R., Montano, M., Ashdown, A., Warvel, L., & Scerbo, M. (2012). Virtual I.V. Self-Directed Learning System. In A. Parodi et al. (Eds.) LIVES Lab: Process Development for a conceptual Framework Driven, Process and Product Analysis Laboratory for Medical & Healthcare Simulators and Simulations, Technical report, Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center.

Kennedy, R.A. & Scerbo, M.W. (2012). Initial laparoscopic performance: Impoverished visual-spatial cues compromise movements in the depth plane. Simulation in Healthcare6, 798. (Best Research Abstract, 4th Place)

Anderson-Montoya, B.L., Scerbo, M.W., Kennedy, R.A., Belfore II, L.A., Abuhamad, A. Z., Davis, S.S., & Chauhan, S. P. (2012). Critical signal detection during multiple patient monitoring of fetal heart rate tracings. Simulation in Healthcare6, 410.


Scerbo, M. W., Kennedy, R.A., & Anderson, B. L. (2011). Evaluation of a secondary attentional task for laparoscopy. Simulation in Healthcare5, 445.

Scerbo, M.W., Turner, T.R., Newlin-Canzone, E.T., Kennedy, R., Meglan, D., Waddington, R., King, D., & Champion, H. (January, 2011). Evaluation of a craniotomy burr hole drilling simulator. Poster presented at the 11th Annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, New Orleans, LA.